|Scaling, or the formation of mineral deposits can occur on surfaces of metal, rock or other materials. Scale is caused by a precipitation process as a result of a change in pressure and temperature and the subsequent change in the composition of a solution.
Typical scales consist of e.g. calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, barium sulfate, strontium sulfate, iron sulfide, iron oxides or iron carbonate.
Sometimes salt deposits restrict or even shut-off the production conduit as the produced water composition is severely affected by the change in pressure and temperature of the produced water.
Not only produced formation water can cause problems, also water used in well operations can be potential sources of scale, including water used in waterflood operations and filtrates from completion, workover or treating fluids.
Controlling scale by the use of inhibitors and understanding scaling tendencies is important for both production and injection wells.
At PanTerra we have a range in analytical equipment to analyse unknown solids and scale deposits.