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Porosity and permeability
Plotting poroperm results

Rock samples consist of grains with open spaces, pores, in between the grains. These pores can contain water, oil and/or gas. The amount of pores in a rock and their configuration determines the rock's porosity and permeability. The porosity of a material is defined as the ratio of the volume of open space (pore volume) to the total volume (bulk volume). The permeability of a material is a measure of the ease with which a gas or liquid can move through the pores.

Knowledge about porosity and permeability of sub-surface rocks is essential for reservoir description and for determination of the rock's oil and gas potential. Porosity and permeability measurements are also used in geotechnical studies.

Helium porosity can be measured on sidewall samples, drill cuttings and standard plug samples, up to full diameter cores.
Grain density
Grain density is the ratio of the weight of a sample to its grain volume. The grain density is a function of the lithology of the sample and is routinely measured.

Steady-state or unsteady-state gas permeability can be measured, including Klinkenberg slip factor and intertial coefficient (Beta). Permeability can be measured on various plug sizes and from 0.001 mD up to 25 Darcy. On full diameter core samples, directional permeability can be measured.

Usually porosity is measured at ambient temperature and pressure and permeability at a confining pressure of 400 psi for practical purposes. However, at PanTerra both parameters can be measured from ambient pressure up to confining pressures of 10,000 psi to mimic natural sub-surface conditions.

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